Glossary

Advanced Air Quality Systems (AAQS)

Commonly referred to as exhaust gas cleaning systems
or “scrubbers,” are a significant technological innovation designed to improve air emissions, meet and exceed environmental regulatory standards and support sustainable operations in the global shipping industry.

Audit

Systematic, documented, periodic and objective assessment of an organization’s performance, management systems and processes.

Available Lower Berth (ALB)

Guest beds available on a cruise ship, assuming two people occupy each cabin.

Advanced Waste Water Treatment Systems (AWWTS)

Remove contaminants from black and gray water and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused.

Ballast Water

Seawater that is taken on board a ship and stored in tanks to control draft, list, trim and stability.

Bilge Water

Water from equipment maintenance and minor leaks that collects in the lowest part of the ship.

Black Water

Wastewater from toilets, urinals and medical sinks.

Bunkered Water

Potable water that is purchased from a municipal or private system at a port and stored onboard in tanks.

CFC-11 Equivalent

A measure used to compare various substances based on their relative ozone depletion potential. The reference level of 1 is the potential of CFC-11 and CFC-12 to cause ozone depletion.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Commonly known by the trade name “freon,” used primarily as a refrigerant in air-conditioning and refrigeration systems and equipment. CFCs are known to have destructive effects on the ozone layer. For this reason their use has now been banned by legislation.

Circular Economy

The circular economy is an economic model that aims to avoid waste and to preserve the value of resources (raw materials, energy and water) and keep them in a ‘closed loop’ for as long as possible. Products and materials are continuously (re)circulated - as opposed to a linear model in which they are discarded as waste after use.

CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)

A naturally-occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure; it exists in Earth’s atmosphere in this state, as a trace gas at a concentration of 0.39 percent by volume.

Cold Ironing

Cold ironing is the process of providing shoreside electrical power to a ship at berth while its main and auxiliary engines are turned off. The term came into existence during the time when ships were coal fired. Once the coal fired ship was in port and attached to a shore-based power source the engines no longer needed to be stoked by coal and the fires would die down until the large iron engines grew cold. Hence, cold iron became cold ironing.

CO2e (Equivalent Carbon Dioxide)

A measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based on their global warming potential (GWP). The CO2 equivalent for a gas is derived by multiplying the tonnes of the gas by the associated GWP.

Direct Emissions (Scope 1 Emissions)

Emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting organization. For example, direct emissions related to combustion would arise from burning fuel for energy within the reporting organization’s boundaries.

Energy Saved

The reduced amount of energy needed to carry out the
same processes or tasks. The term does not include overall reduction in energy consumption from reduced organizational activities.

Environmental Aspect

Element of Company activities that may have a significant impact on the environment directly and/or indirectly.

Environmental Impact

How an environmental aspect may affect the environment.

Environmental Management System (EMS)

An EMS refers to the management of an organization’s environmental programs in a comprehensive, systematic, planned and documented manner. It includes the organizational structure, planning and resources for developing, implementing and maintaining policy for environmental protection.

Footprint

The amount of environmental impact related to a specific resource.

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

A network-based organization that produces a comprehensive sustainability reporting framework that is widely used around the world. GRI is committed to the framework’s continuous improvement and application worldwide. GRI’s core goals include the mainstreaming of disclosure on environmental, social and governance performance.

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

A relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide. A GWP is calculated over a specific time interval, commonly 20, 100 or 500 years.

Governance

The set of rules (laws and corporate regulations), organizational structures, processes and relationships that affect the way a company is directed and administered. The concept of governance also embraces the structure used to decide corporate objectives and the means to achieve and measure results.

Gray Water

Wastewater that is generated from activities such as laundry, bathing, cooking and dish washing.

Greenhouse Gas (GHG)

A gas in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect, which many believe is the cause of global warming. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth; without them, Earth’s surface would be on average about 33 degrees C (59 degrees F) colder than at present. The greenhouse gases thought to be major contributors to global warming are carbon dioxide (CO2); methane and biomethane emissions (CH4); nitrogen oxide (N2O) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC).

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol Initiative

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative’s vision is to harmonize greenhouse gas emission accounting and reporting standards internationally. It aims to provide a multi-stakeholder framework ensuring that different trading schemes and other climate-related initiatives adopt consistent approaches to GHG accounting.

Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) System

The technology used for indoor environmental climate control.

Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO)

A type of blended oil used in ship’s engines, made from the residues from various refinery distillation and cracking processes.

Indicator

A means used to measure the effects of sustainability management initiatives or the condition of environmental, social or governance issues.

Indirect Emissions (Scope 2 Emissions)

Emissions that result from the activities of the reporting organization, but that are generated at sources owned or controlled by another organization. In the context of this indicator, indirect emissions refer to greenhouse gas emissions from the generation of electricity, heat or steam that is imported and consumed by the reporting organization.

Indirect Energy

Energy produced outside the reporting organization’s boundary that is consumed to supply energy for the organization’s energy needs (e.g., electricity, or for heating and cooling). The most common example is fuel consumed outside the reporting organization’s boundary in order to generate electricity to be used inside the organization’s boundary.

Injury Severity Levels

Work-related crew member and contractor injuries are classified as major, serious, or minor, based on the following criteria:

  • Major injury: Any fracture, loss of any body part, loss

    of vision (temporary or permanent), dislocation of a
    joint or a ruptured ligament or tendon, hypothermia or hyperthermia secondary to environmental exposure that requires medical treatment, an injury resulting in trauma that requires advanced life support or any other injury requiring hospitalization on board or on shore for more than 24 hours following the injury.

  • Serious injury: Any injury, other than a major injury, which results in time off work for more than three consecutive days following the injury, or that results in disembarkation without return on board.

  • Minor injury: Any injury that is not a serious or major injury and that results in time off work of 24 hours or more following the injury.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

The United Nations’ agency that seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labor rights.

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

The United Nations’ agency responsible for improving maritime safety and preventing pollution from ships.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. An ISO Standard is an international specification that establishes a common framework of reference or a common technical language between suppliers and customers, thus facilitating trade and the transfer of technology.

International Safety Management (ISM) Code

International code for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention.

ISO 14001

Global standards for Environmental Management System developed by the ISO.

International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code

A part of SOLAS that prescribes responsibilities of governments, shipping companies, shipboard personnel, and port/facility personnel to “detect security threats and take preventative measures against security incidents affecting ships or port facilities used in international trade.”


Liquefed Natural Gas (LNG)

Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport.

Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)

A system that employs filtration, maceration and chlorination technologies to treat black water.

Maritime Labour Convention 2006 (MLC 2006)

An international treaty that provides comprehensive rights and protection at work for the world’s seafarers. The convention sets out seafarers’ rights to decent conditions of work on a wide range of subjects and aims to be globally applicable, easily understandable, readily updatable and uniformly enforced.

MARPOL

The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. MARPOL is one of the most important marine environmental conventions, which was designed to minimize pollution of the seas.

Metric Tonne

1 metric tonne = 2,204.62 pounds (lbs.) = 1,000 kilograms.

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen that are a family of gases released from the combustion of fuel.

Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP)

The relative potential of various gases to deplete the ozone in the atmosphere.

Ozone-Depleting Substance (ODS)

Any substance with an ozone depletion potential greater than zero that can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Most ozone-depleting substances are regulated under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments, and include CFCs, HCFCs, halons and methyl bromide.

Primary Source

The initial form of energy consumed to satisfy the reporting organization’s energy demand. This energy is used either to provide final energy services (e.g., space heating, transport) or to produce intermediate forms of energy, such as electricity and heat.

Protected Area

A geographically defined area that is designated, regulated, or managed to achieve specific conservation objectives.

Refrigerants

Gases that are used in HVAC systems on board.

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. This includes electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean currents, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources or biofuels, as well as hydrogen derived from renewable resources.

Safety Management System (SMS)

ISM code-certified system that informs employees how to perform their duties in accordance with all safety and environmental laws.

Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention

The most important and comprehensive international treaty governing the safety of merchant ships.

Signifcant Air Emissions

Air emissions that are regulated under international conventions and/or national laws or regulations, including those listed on environmental permits for the reporting organization’s operations.

Solid Waste

All used and discarded solid material produced on board during ship operations.

SOx

Oxides of sulfur are a family of gases produced by the combustion of fuel which contains sulfur. The quantity of oxides of sulfur is proportional to the quantity of sulfur in the fuel.

Stakeholder

Any individual or group, within or outside a company, that has an interest in or may be impacted by that company, and that accordingly has expectations, requires information or holds legitimate economic interests.

STCW

The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, which sets qualification standards for masters, Officers and watch personnel on seagoing merchant ships.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations. The broad goals are interrelated though each has its own targets to achieve. The total number of targets is 169. The SDGs cover a broad range of social and economic development issues. These include poverty, hunger, health, education, climate change, gender equality, water, sanitation, energy, environment, and social justice.

Total Water Withdrawal

The sum of all water drawn into the boundaries of the reporting organization from all sources (including surface water, ground water, rainwater, and municipal water supply) for any use over the course of the reporting period.

Turnover

Turnover includes voluntary separation, retirement, terminations and layoffs in the reporting year and excludes seasonal employees at Holland America Princess Alaska Tours.